Examples of the questions that may be seen on the exam:

What if any relationship is there between Opioid receptors and MSCs? 

There is essentially no relationship
2. MSCs can bind to Opioid receptors reducing pain.
3. There is a powerful anti-tolerance effect and a remarkable anti-hyperalgesia effect of MSCs.
4. In at least animal studies intrathecal injections proved more effective than intravenous. 

A. All are correct
B. Only 1 is correct
C. Only 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct 

According to the work of Arnold Caplan most MSCs in vivo are not multipotent. 

A. True
B. False 

It has been assumed that there is a short time line in the lives of MSCs that are injected into a joint etc. Yet, the effect of the cells seems to last months or years. What is the main reason for this effect? 

1. Dependent mainly upon the paracrine effect of the MSCs
2. The tissue is repaired and symptoms go away
3. The homing effect will cause more stem cells to flow to the area
4. The MSCs and other stem cells ultimately produce T-reg cells which have very long longevity. 

A. All are correct
B. Only 2 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 3 are correct
D. Only 4 is correct 

In a classical article by S. de Witte et al in the journal Stem Cells (2018) showed the mechanism of systemic MSC action. Which of the following statements are true? 

  1. MSC are usually administered via intravenous infusion, after which they are trapped in the lungs and die and disappear within a day.
    2. Phagocytosis of ucMSC induces phenotypical and functional changes in monocytes, which subsequently modulate cells of the immune system
    3. Cells of the innate immune system are determinant in mediating the effect of MSC and that they can rapidly distribute the effect of MSC to distant body sites. 
    4. MSC-primed monocytes increased Foxp3, CD25, CD127- CD41 Tregs cells. 

A. Only 1 and 4 are correct
B. Only 2 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 4 are correct
D. All are correct. 

Which of the following statements concerning T-reg cells are correct? 

  1. FOXP3 appears to function as a master regulator of the regulatory pathway in the development and function of regulatory T cells.
    2. Use of regulatory T cells in therapy may be risky, as the T regulatory cell transferred to the patient may change into T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which are pro-inflammatory rather than regulatory cells.

    3. Mutations or disruptions of the Foxp3 regulatory pathway can lead to organ-specific autoimmune diseases such as autoimmune thyroiditis and type 1 diabetes mellitus.
    4. CD4+ Foxp3+ CD25(high) regulatory T cells have been called “naturally occurring” regulatory T cell to distinguish them from “suppressor” T cell populations that are generated in vitro 

A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct
C. Only 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 2 and 4 are correct 

When discussing peripheral blood stem cells which of the following statements are correct? 

  1. They are basically have senescent and quiescent cell profiles
    2. They are activated by 4 degrees centigrade temperatures
    3. They have some pluripotent tendencies
    4. They have a PTH surface marker 

A. All are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. Only 1 and 3 are correct
D. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct. 

 

When discussing exosomes which is the preliminary step in formation? 

A. Lysosome
B. Multi-vesicular body
C. Endosome
D. Interaction between extracellular proteins and cell receptors 

Which of the following statements is true concerning the AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) pathway 

  1. AMPK acts as a master switch to regulate cell functions such as uptake of glucose, burning of fats, and formation of new mitochondria
    2. It is an enzyme that plays a critical role in cellular homeostasis.
    3. AMPK activity is one of the keys for mitochondrial biogenesis and declines with age.
    4. One method of maintaining higher AMPK activity is calorie restriction

A. Only 1 and 2 are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. None are correct
D. All are correct 

When discussing platelets which of the following statements are true? 

  1. Platelets contain alpha granules which contain a variety of growth factors some of which promote angiogenesis
    2. Platelets contain angiostatin and endostatin – both potent inhibitors of angiogenesis
    3. Platelets release microparticles which contain m RNA and have many different effects on immunity, endothelial cells and macrophages
    4. Dense granules contain ATP 

A.All are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct
C. Only 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct 

When discussing exosomes which of the following statements are true. 

  1. Exosomes and viruses are very similar
    2. siRNA, mRNA, single strand DNA, double strand DNA, various proteins found in exosomes
    3. The exosome content affects both the transcriptional and translational levels of the cell
    4. Mainly they are cell and tissue specific 

A. 1 and 4 are correct
B. All are correct
C. 2 and 3 are correct
D. 2 and 3 are correct 

According to recent research paper published in Duke University discussing the potential success on various joints in the body which of the following statements are correct? 

  1. Essentially there is no difference in success when considering joint location.
    2. A microRNA disables a specific messenger RNA in the body that inhibits new collagen production which is important for success
    3. Joints more distal in the body had younger proteins leading to more potential success.
    4. Stem cells seem to have more difficulty getting to more distal 

A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct C. Only 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 2 and 4 are correct 

When discussing MSC 1 cells which of the following are true? 

  1. They are mainly responsible for immune modulation
    2. Toll like receptors seem to be involved in polarization
    3. IGF-1 is involved in their action
    4. Cathelicidin is involved in its action 

A. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 4 are correct
c. Only 3 is correct
d. Only 2 and 4 are correct 

 

When discussing extra- cellular vesicles in platelets which statements are considered true? 

  1. There are two major types of vesicles exosomes (30-100 nm in diameter) and MVs (100-1,000 nm in diameter)
    2. Platelet-EVs might be not only a next-generation alternative to PRP but also a potential vehicle for the administration of drugs and other molecules, including mRNA, miRNA and lncRNA.
    3. Platelet -EVs), are the most abundant EVs in human blood
    4. EVs) have since been found to play a considerable role in the biological function of activated platelets 

A. Only 1 and 3 are true
B. Only 2 and 4 are true
C. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are true
D. All are true 

 

Which of the following statements are correct concerning T-reg cells. 

  1. They produce large amounts of TGF-beta and IL-10
    2. They are important in prevention and reversal of autoimmune diseases
    3. Their markers include CD4+, CD25+, FOXP3+
    4. They are many times produced by phagocytosis of hMSCs by monocytes 

A. Only 1 and 2 are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. All are correct
D. Only 1 and 3 are correct. 

Which of the following statements concerning MSCs are correct? 

  1. MSCs survey, sense, and respond to their environment
    2. MSCs arise from their release from perivascular locations
    3. They can be pro or anti inflammatory
    4. Allogenic MSC cells are immune evasive 

A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct
C. Only 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct 

Which is false concerning activated neutrophils and a primed neutrophil? 

A. Difference in growth factor profile
b. Primed neutrophils represent a sterile injection or aseptic injury
c. In a primed but not activated neutrophil stop signals are sent out to prevent recruitment of leukocytes from the circulation.
d. An activated neutrophil promotes resolution of Inflammation.

Which of the following are the main causes of cell senescence? 

  1. Telomere erosion
    2. Stem cell exhaustion
    3. Mitochondrial dysfunction
    4. Chronic inflammation 

A. Only 2 and 4 are correct
b. Only 1 and 2 are correct
c. Only 1 and 3 are correct
d. All are correct 

When discussing the analgesic effects of MSCs derived from bone marrow vs. adipose tissue there was essentially no difference. 

A. True
B. False 

Which of the following statements concerning Alzheimer’s disease is true? 

  1. LL-37 and Beta-Amyloid found in Alzheimer’s are very, very similar in make-up.
    2. Beta Amyloid seems to be part of the ancient immune system
    3. Tanzi and Moir discovered that amyloid protects against infection thus it is probably protective.
    4. Tanzi and Moir postulate that the innate immune system is confused and attacking healthy cells in Alzheimer’s 

A.All are correct
b. None are correct
c. Only 1 and 3 are correct
d. Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct 

Nitric Oxide can have metabolic effects on a variety of areas. Which of the following is false? 

A.NO can affect Neural tissue and the skeletal muscle
B. It can be associated with inflammation
C. It can increase stem cell output from the bone marrow
D. NO helps in the conversion of white fat to brown fat