Examples of the questions that may be seen on the exam:

1. Recently an article was published by the Univ. of Cal at San Diego talking about potentially the most successful area in the spinal cord region to inject for a spinal cord injury. What is this area located?
A. Directneedleinjectionintothespinalparenchyma B. Injectionintotheepiduralspace
C.
D. Direct intrathecal injection
2. What are some of the drawbacks of CRISPR technology?
1. 2.
3. changes to the RNA pattern
4. Distinct chance of activation of Onco- genes
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 are correct
Depositing injected cells into the spinal subpial space — a space
between the pial membrane and the superficial layers of the spinal
cord.
could trigger immune responses,
cause accidental changes to the genome that would be
permanent

3. When discussing RNA editing which of the following are correct? 1.
2. 3.
4. RNA editing could rewrite the genome’s instructions en route to making proteins.
A. All are correct
B. Only1 and 3 are correct C. Only 2 and 4 are correct D. Only 2 an3 are correct
4. What are some of the effects of Ozone therapy in the body?
1. It can affect the NrF2 pathway
2. It seems to be tied in with the production of NAD
3. antioxidant response elements (ARE). 4.
A. Only 1 and 4 are correct
B. Only 2 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct D. All are correct
RNA editing could allow researchers to mimic genetic variants that
provide a health advantage
RNA editing could be used to fight tumors.
Unlike the DNA-editing enzyme Cas9, which comes from bacteria,
ADARs are human proteins that don’t trigger an attack from the
immune system
It affects transcription of
It affects the NQO1 pathway. NQO-1 is also called the longevity
gene. It is very helpful in maintaining the proper NAD/NADH ratio.

5. In
A. Serum exosomes
B. Platelet exosomes
C. Serum IGF-1
D. Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11)
6. What cell is typically the one thought to be responsible for eventual long-term effects attributed to MSCs?
A. T cells
B. HSCs
C. The phagocytic effect of Monocytes D. M-2 macrophages
7. Which of the following portions of the immune system are responsible for autoimmune diseases?
1. Th-17 2. Th-2 3. Th-1 4. T-reg
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct C. Only 1 and 3 are correct D. Only 2 and 4 are correct
parabiosis although it is somewhat controversial which protein is
thought to be responsible for beneficial effects?

8. Which of the following growth factors are thought to have a causative effect on Sarcopenia?
1. IL-6 2. TNF 3. IL-4 4. IL-1
A. All are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct C. Only 1 and 2 are correct D. Only 1 and 4 are correct
9. Concerning Brown Adipose tissue (BAT) which of the following have firm scientific basis?
1.
2.
3. There is a role of bone morphogenic protein signaling in the regulation of BAT mass and activity, suggesting the feasibility of
targeting this mechanism to develop obesity therapies. 4.
A. Only 1 and 2 and 5 are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct
C. Only 1 and 3 and 5 are correct
D. All are correct
Several activators of thermogenesis have been described, such
as natriuretic peptides, bone morphogenic proteins, or
fibroblast growth factor 21.
Its activity is reduced in several pathological conditions, such as
aging, obesity, and diabetes
Activation of BAT is associated with various physiological
improvements such as a reduction in blood glucose levels
increased resting energy expenditure and reduced weight

10. When discussing senescent cells which of the following agents are thought to be of significant importance in the field of Senotherapeutics?
1. Senolytic agents
2. Senomorphics which modulate functions and morphology of SCs
to those of young cells, or delays the progression of young cells to
SCs in tissues
3. Immune-system mediators of the clearance of Senescent cells
4. antibiotics
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
11. Which of the following are considered integral portions of a PRP product?
1. Coagulation factors such as Factor V etc. 2. Anti-microbiocidal such as C-1 inhibitor 3. Anti-Coagulation factors such as plasmin 4. Chemokines
5. Growth and angiogenic regulators
A. Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. All are correct
D. Only 3nand 4 and 5 are correct

12. A recent article from NIH (Feb 2020) entitled “Drug activates brown fat, improves glucose metabolism in healthy women”. This drug appears to increase brown fat. What is the drug called?
A. B. C. D.
13.
1. 2. 3. 4.
A. B. C. D.
IGF-1 Metformin Adipokines Mirabergron
Autoimmune diseases are usually characterized by the following
Abundance of Treg cells
Seems to involve Th-1 immune system Production of inflammatory cytokines
Seems to sometimes involve the Th-17 system
All are correct
Only 1 and 3 are correct
Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct Only 3 is correct
14.
numbers of stem cells from the marrow?
Which of the following is most associated typically with increased
A. Nitric Oxide Inducible Synthase B. Nitric Oxide Endothelial Synthase C. Nitric Oxide Neuronal Synthase D. Bacterial Nitric Oxide Synthase

15. Which of the following cells are known to act as a decoy receptor for IL-1?
1. Neutrophils
2. Monocytes
3. Polarized M1 macrophages 4. Microglia
5. Regulatory T cells
A. All are correct
B. Only 3 is correct
C. Only 1 and 3 and 5 are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 and 4 and 5 are correct
16. Which of the following are characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells?
1. Plastic adherence.
2. Difficult to culture
3. Can be both trophic and immunomodulatory 4. They can begin as pericytes
A. All are correct
B. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct C. 1 and 3 and 4 are correct D. 2 and 3 are correct
17. When discussing stem cells in general what is the current best method to assess the technique of the harvest as far as stem cells numbers are concerned?
A. Flow cytometer
B. CFU analysis
C. Total cell count
D. Clinical improvement

18. When comparing MSCs from Wharton’s Jelly vs. Umbilical cord blood there are some differences found. Which of the following are correct?
1. 2.
3. 4.
A. B. C. D.
MSCs are known to exist as a heterogeneous population in both.
MSCs shown to possess a small size with high nuclear fluctuation
which predicts the “stemness” and enhanced therapeutic
capacity. UCB-MSCs are typically smaller in size with higher
nuclear fluctuation compared with WJ-MSCs.
UCB-MSCs expressed higher levels of ECM remodeling enzymes,
but lower levels of collagens compared to Wharton’s Jelly
Wharton’s Jelly cells are easily expanded while UBC cells are difficult to expand.
Only1and4arecorrect Only2and3arecorrect Only1and3and4arecorrect
All are correct
19.
Which of the following is false?
Nitric Oxide can have metabolic effects on a variety of areas.
A. Neural tissue and the skeletal muscle
B. can be associated with inflammation
C. can increase stem cell output from the bone marrow D. it helps in the conversion of white fat to brown fat

20. When comparing MSCs from Wharton’s Jelly vs. Umbilical cord blood there are some differences found. Which of the following are correct?
5. 6.
7. 8.
E. F. G. H.
MSCs are known to exist as a heterogeneous population in both.
MSCs shown to possess a small size with high nuclear fluctuation
which predicts the “stemness” and enhanced therapeutic
capacity. UCB-MSCs are typically smaller in size with higher
nuclear fluctuation compared with WJ-MSCs.
UCB-MSCs expressed higher levels of ECM remodeling enzymes,
but lower levels of collagens compared to Wharton’s Jelly
Wharton’s Jelly cells are easily expanded while UBC cells are difficult to expand.
Only 1 and 4 are correct
Only 2 and 3 are correct
Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct
All are correct