These are test question samples from the American Academy of Stem Cell Physicians Board Examination.
1. When discussing MSC 1 cells which of the following are true?
1. They are mainly responsible for immune modulation
2. Toll like receptors seem to be involved in polarization
3. IGF-1 is involved in their action
4. Cathelicidin is involved in its action
a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 4 are correct
c. Only 3 is correct
d. Only 2 and 4 are correct
2. Quiescent cell will still be capable of cell division when mitotic stimulation is applied?
a. False
b. True
3. Which of the following seem to inhibit cellular senescence?
1. Sirtuin gene activation
2. P-53
3. Free radical formation
4. Telomerase activation
a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 4 are correct
c. Only 2 and 4 are correct
d. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct
4. Yamanaka Factors are factors regulating the developmental signaling network necessary for ES cell pluripotency.
a. True
b. False
5. According to the research of Bruno Peault et al MSCs start out as Pericytes.  
a. True
b. False
6. What are the main differences between Adaptive and Innate Immunity?
1. Cellular and Humeral are considered Adaptive Immunity
2. Innate immunity depends on NK killer cells
3. Adaptive is T cell mediated immunity
4. Innate uses phagocytes
a. Only 1 and 2 are correct
b. All are correct
c. Only 2 and 4 are correct
d. None are correct
7. Concerning post-operative regimens in regenerative medicine which of the following is false?
1. A brief period of active rest is recommended following the procedure.
2. Early initiation of movement is critical to mitigate the negative effects of immobilization.
3. The use of NSAIDs and ice is generally safe in the acute and early subacute phases.
4. Mechanical loading is essential and promotes a favorable microenvironment for PR

a. Only 1 and 3 are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct
d. All are correct
8. Mitochondria are central regulators of neural stem cell fate and cognitive function.  
a. True
b. False
9. RBCs in a platelet product may have the following effects
1. RBCs act early during the hemostasis reaction increasing the activation and release of bioactive factors from platelet
2. Activated RBCs accelerate and amplify thrombin generation
3. RBC-driven activity stems from the exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS), a lipid that is normally stored on the surface of the RBC. PS on RBCs will stimulate phagocytes.
4. The hemoglobin will attract platelets

a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 4 are correct
c. Only 2 and 4 are correct
d. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
10. Which steps are instrumental in Vasculogenesis?
1. Stimulation by VEGF
2. Sprouting
3. Stimulation by SDF-1
4. EPC recruitment

a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 2 are correct
c. Only 2 and 4 are correct
d. Only 3 and 4 are correct
11. Which of the following are thought to be attributes of the   P-53 gene?
1. With minor cellular damage it is able to perform DNA repair
2. No matter what the damage it will cause cellular aptosis
3. It is also called tumor suppressor gene
4. If a person inherits only one functional copy of the p53 gene from their parents, they are predisposed to cancer

a. Only 1 and 4 are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
d. All are correct
12. ESWT applied to an area of chronic inflammation may enable acute inflammatory mediators to be released, facilitating appropriate progression of healing.
a. True
b. False
13. When considering ESWT which of the following are not true?
1. Change of cell membrane permeability
2. Lubricin down regulation
3. Antibacterial effects
4. Increases oxygen tension
a. All are correct
b. None are correct
c. Only 1 and 3 are correct
d. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
14. According to the research of DR. Michael Hamblin of Harvard which of the following are true?
1. After the initial photon absorption events, numerous signaling pathways are activated via reactive oxygen species, cyclic AMP, NO and Ca2+, leading to activation of transcription factors.
2. The only effect is to increase mitochondria production
3. NF-kB response is an important aspect of photo modulation
4. LLLT differs from other light-based treatments because it does not ablate and is not based on heating. 

a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 2 are correct
c. Only 3 is correct
d. Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct
15. Which of the following are considered Master Inflammatory Cytokines?
1. IL-1
2. IL-10
3. IL-4
4. IL-6
a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 2 are correct
c. Only 1 and 3 are correct
d. Only 1 and 4 are correct
16. The use of NSAIDs and ice is generally safe in the acute and early subacute phases
a. True
b. False
17. According to the work of Garguilo et al.   Peripheral Blood Stem cells are known to increase telomere length in cells of the Immune system.
a. True
b. False
18. Which of the following is true concerning osteoporosis?

1. It is an autoimmune mediated disease
2. May be rooted in senescent cells
3. It may be related to the Sirtuin Gene pathway
4. damage to mitochondria—

a. Only 1 and 3 are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. Only 1 and 4 are correct
d. All are correct
19. Which cell in the brain is most like a macrophage in the brain?

a. Astrocyte
b. Neuron
c. T cell
d. Microglia
20. Which of the following statements are true concerning Microglia?
1. They can become polarized to type 1 and type 2
2. They seem to involve the immune system in the brain
3. They are intimately involved in mitochondria genesis
4. They are involved in brain aging
a. All are correct
b. Only 1and 2 are correct
c. Only 2 and 3 are correct
d. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct
21. When culturing cells BmMSCs and ucMSCs showed decreasing proliferative capacity over time, while their telomere lengths and mitochondrial activity remained stable.

a. True

b. False

22. Which of the following cytokines seems to be most important in brain functions
a. IL-6
b. IL-10
c. IL-1 a
d. BDNF
23. When dealing with laser stimulation when discussing Blue light 450 nm which is true
1. Immune stimulating effects
2. Anti-microbial properties
3. Absorbed by hemoglobin
4. Increases Nitric Oxide production
a. Only 1 and 3 are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. All are correct
d. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
24. For stem cells, the primary means of producing energy is glycolysis, a process that generates ATP in the cytoplasm
a. True
b. False
25. Which of the following are thought to be NAD effects on Senescent cells?
1. It will increase cellular aptosis
2. It will help clear out Senescent cells
3. It will increase up-regulated CD 38 in surrounding non-senescent cells
4. May allow the senescent cell to increase secretion of inflammatory cytokines
a. All are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. Only 2 is correct
d. Only 3 and 4 are correct
26. AUTOPHAGY IS A PROCESS IN THE BODY THAT CAN BE CONSIDERED OUR BODY’S INNATE RECYCLING PROGRAM
a. True
b. False
27. In parabiosis what is considered the Main positive factor
a. Increased amounts of IGF-1
b. Increased IL-10
c. Increased GDF-11
d. Increased exosome concentration
28. Concerning MUSE cells which of the following are true?

1. Probably Unipotent
2. Very high survival rate upon transplantation
3. Adipose or bone marrow tissue derived
4. Display high efficiency for differentiating into
three germ layers from a single cell: Endoderm, Mesoderm, Ectoderm
5. Seem to be most related to Hemopoietic stem cells
a. 1 and 2 are correct
b. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
c. A and E are correct
d. 2 and 3 and 4 are correct
29. Most Auto-immune diseases can be characterized the following

1.  Usually large numbers of T-reg cells are present.
2.  Mesenchymal stem cell 2 types are more numerous than type 1 MSCs
3.  Macrophage Type 1 is more numerous than type 2
4.  TH-1 and TH-17 portions of the Immune system have prevalent roles
A. 1 and 4 are correct
B. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
C. All are correct
D. Only 3 and 4 are correct.
30. Numbers of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in adipose diminish as we age.  
a. True
b. False