Examples of the questions that may be seen on the exam:

1. When dealing with Ozone therapy which of the following
statements are true?
1. Ozone therapy appears to have an effect on the NAD/NADH ratio
2. Ozone therapy stimulates cytokine therapy
3. The NFR2 pathway is significantly affected by Ozone
4. Ozone therapy intravenously helps to eliminate Beta 2
microglobulin
A. Only 1 and 4 are correct
B. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct
C. Only 3 and 4 are correct
D. All are correct

2. What cell is typically the one thought to be responsible for long
term effects attributed to MSCs?

A. T cells
B. HSCs
C. T-reg
D. M-2 macrophages

3. A2M is typically found where?
A. Muscle tissue
B. PRP
C. PPP
D. Bone marrow aspirate

4. Phagocytosis of MSC induces an immunomodulatory
phenotype in monocytes and MSC-primed monocytes induces
Foxp3+, CD25hi, CD127-, CD4+ Regulatory T cells.

A. True
B. False

5. Which of the following portions of the immune system are
responsible for autoimmune diseases?
1. Th-17
2. Th-2
3. Th-1
4. T-reg
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct
C. Only 1 and 3 are correct
D. Only 2 and 4 are correct

6. What are some crucial differences between M-1 and M-2
macrophages?
1. M1 induces an aerobic glycolytic program that results in lactate
production
2. M-2 trigger a metabolic program including β- oxidation, Krebs
cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.
3. M-2 makes extensive use of NO
4. Both initially use L-arginine
A. Only 1 and 3 are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. All are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct

7. In the preparation of SVF what are thought to be some of the
drawbacks?
1.The niche seems damaged
2.In vitro ADSC differentiation is not readily reproducible in the in
vivo microenvironment
3.You are potentially excluding some of the most potent
Regenerative Cells found in fat, namely the MUSE Cells and VSELS
4.It contains high numbers of HSCs

A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
C. Only 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 3 and 4 are correct

8. What are some of the differences between obese and lean
adipose tissue?
1. Lean adipose has more HSCs
2. Obese fat has more Adipose Tissue Macrophages 2 cells
3. Lean fat has more NKT cells
4. Lean fat has more T-reg cells
A. All are correct
B. Only 3 and 4 are correct
C. Only 1 and 3 are correct
D. Only1 and 2 and 3 are correct

9. In a study from Duke university concerning success in treating
various joints in the body which of the following statements
are true.
1. More distal joints are less successful
2. Prevalence of younger proteins was tied to the abundance of a
microRNA that blocks the action of a messenger RNA that inhibits
the production of new collagen proteins.
3. Proximal joints typically have more stem cells
4. There were no cytokines produced proximally
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 4 is correct
D. Only 2 is correct

10. Ozone will typically produce more free radicals than
Hyperbaric Oxygen.
A. True
B. False

11. Which of the following statements concerning the NRF2
pathway is true?
1. It has effects on 600 genes involved in cellular protection and
anti-oxidant defenses.
2. It is a transcription factor
3. It is sometimes called the longevity gene
4. It has a significant effect on the NAD/NADH ratio
A. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. All are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 are correct

12. When concerning RNAs which of the following statements
are correct?

1. A message written in the chemical language of nucleotides is
“translated” into the chemical language of amino acids
2. tRNA transfers information from the nucleus to the mitochondria
3. messenger RNA Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family
of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the
ribosome
4. deals with translation
5. Micro RNA = mi RNA is a small non-coding RNA molecule that
functions in RNA silencing and post-transcriptional regulation of
gene expression
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 2 are correct
C. Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct
D. Only 2 and 4 are correct

13. Which of the following are considered major myokine
growth factors?
1. Leukemia inhibitory Factor
2. BNDF
3. FGF-21
4. IGF-1
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
D. Only 2 and 4 are correct

14. Which of the following growth factors are thought to have a
causative effect on Sarcopenia?
1. IL-6
2. TNF
3. IL-4
4. IL-1

A. All are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. Only 1 and 2 are correct
D. Only 1 and 4 are correct

15. Which of the following statements are correct concerning
Ozone therapy?
1. Ozone in a biological system will immediately interact with the
double bonds found in amino acids and lipids (fats) to form
compounds called peroxides.
2. It is the action of these peroxides that actually cause the biological
effects seen with Ozone.
3. Ozone therapy will stimulate large numbers of free radicals.
4. Ozone forms Ozonides which stimulate Antioxidant response
elements (ARE) which orchestrate the expression of a myriad of
genes.
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 1 and 4 are correct