Examples of the questions that may be seen on the exam:

1. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with an imbalance between
the ROS production and the antioxidant capacities of the cells is
now considered a potent player in the onset and development of
OA.
A. True
B. False

2. Autophagy is essential to preserve the integrity and function of
articular cartilage. Which of the following statements are correct?
1. Studies in human OA cartilage and in an experimental OA,
demonstrated that autophagy is abnormally reduced
2. up-regulation of autophagy suppresses glucocorticoid-stimulated
chondrocyte apoptosis
3. Both energy and mechanical stress activate autophagy initially
4. Autophagy mainly effects the sub-chondral bone area
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct

3. When discussing the coronavirus there was a study out of China
discussing the use of ucMSCs as a method of eliminating the virus
and improving the patient’s symptoms. Which of the following
seem to be the most plausible explanations for these effects?
1. The cells will essentially destroy the virus by phagocytosis
2. The results are probably not just explained by the cells
themselves
3. The immunomodulation may have decreased damage done to
lung tissue.
4. Plasma from the cord was also used which may have contained
LL-37
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 4 are correct
C. Only 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct

4. All of the following are correct regarding Progenitor Cells except:
a. More differentiated than Stem Cells
b. Capable of self-renewal
c. Capable of differentiation
d. They have a High Proliferative Capacity

5. ANY attempt to analyze a cell necessarily alters the nature of the
cell at the time of isolation, thereby altering outcomes of
subsequent differentiation events. Is this statement
a. True
b. False

6. Low level Light Therapy (LLLT) has the following effects except
1. Effects on mitochondria increasing ATP production
2. Several transcription factors are regulated by LLLT
3. Modulates Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)
4. Diminishes DNA activity
5. Can help release NO
a. All are correct
b. Only 1 and 3 are correct
c. Only 1 and 3 are correct
d. Only 1 and 2 and 3 and 5 are correct
7. Concerning MUSE cells which of the following are true?
1. Probably Unipotent
2. Very high survival rate upon transplantation
3. Mainly Adipose or bone marrow tissue derived
4. Display high efficiency for differentiating into
three germ layers from a single cell: Endoderm, Mesoderm,
Ectoderm
5. Seem to be most related to hematopoietic stem cells
a. 1 and 2 are correct
b. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
c. All are correct
d. 2 and 3 and 4 are correct

8. Which of the following compounds is found to have the ability to
increase telomere length in a number of different clinical studies?
A. PTH
B. IGF-1
C. IL-10
D. Danazol
9. A recent study by Zeigler et al at the Steadman Philippon Research
Institute. Compared LR-PRP, LP-PRP, BMA, and BMAC. What
were some of the findings?
1. LR-PRP had more growth factors than LP-PRP for the most part
2. BMAC had the highest concentration of monocytes
3. VGEF was more prominent in LP-PRP than LR-PRP
4. BMC had significantly higher concentrations of monocytes,
neutrophils, and total leukocytes versus the other biologic
preparations.
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 3 are correct
C. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct
D. Only 3 and 4 are correct
10. When culturing BmMSCs and ucMSCs which of the following
is correct?
A. Immunosuppressive properties of MSCs are reduced
B. Telomere degradation was significant
C. Increased capacity to suppress T-cells
D. No major changes were noted

11. When discussing the use of MSCs for the treatment
Covid -19 virus which of the following peptides might have some
benefit?

1. LL-37
2. Defensins
3. Hepcidins
4. Nucleocides
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 2 are correct
C. Only 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct

12. Which of the following statements concerning Ozone is
correct?
1. Ozone has a propensity to break apart lipid molecules at sites of
multiple bond configuration
2. Once Ozone interacts with these compounds it produces
compounds called Ozonides.
3. Ozone stimulates a pathway called the NRF2 pathway
(nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2).
4. The Ozonides also seem to have a significant effect on cytokine
production
A. Only 1 and 3 are correct
B. Only 2 and 4 are correct
C. All are correct
D. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct

13. Which of the following are characteristic of mesenchymal
stem cells?
1. Plastic adherence.
2. Difficult to culture
3. Can be both trophic and immunomodulatory
4. They can begin as pericytes
A. All are correct
B. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
C. 1 and 3 and 4 are correct
D. 2 and 3 are correct

14. When studying exosomes which of the following statements
are true?
1. They may contain siRNA and mRNA
2. They may contain single and double stranded DNA
3. Their environment has a profound effect on what they contain.
4. On a basic level they act very similar to viruses and have similar
contents
5. Their cell programming is rather general
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 2 and 3 and 4 are correct
D. Only 3 and 5 are correct

15. When discussing extra- cellular vesicles in platelets which
statements are considered true?
1. There are two major types of vesicles exosomes (30-100 nm
in diameter) and MVs (100-1,000 nm in diameter)
2. Platelet-EVs might be not only a next-generation alternative
to PRP but also a potential vehicle for the administration of
drugs and other molecules, including mRNA, miRNA and
lncRNA.
3. Platelet -EVs are the most abundant EVs in human blood
4. EVs have since been found to play a considerable role in the
biological function of activated platelets

A. Only 1 and 3 are true
B. Only 2 and 4 are true
C. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are true
D. All are correct

16. Concerning aging HSC cells which of the following is true
according to the work of Chambers et al?
1. Stem cells decline in function, when measured per HSC
2. There is a concomitant increase in HSC numbers, resulting in a
minimal net change in overall HSC activity
3. HSCs are not likely to be a factor limiting hematopoietic
regeneration with age.
4. HSCs are impacted by the forces of aging in a manner similar to
that of differentiated cells.
a. Only 1 and 2 are correct
b. Only 1 and 3 are correct
c. All are correct
d. Only 1 and 4 are correct

17. When culturing BmMSCs and ucMSCs which of the following
is correct?
a. Immunosuppressive properties of MSCs are reduced
b. Telomere degradation was significant
c. Increased capacity to suppress T-cells
d. No major changes were noted

18. Concerning post-operative regimens in regenerative
medicine which of the following are true?
1. A brief period of active rest is recommended following the
procedure.
2. Early initiation of movement is critical to mitigate the negative
effects of immobilization.
3. The use of NSAIDs and ice is generally safe in the acute and early
subacute phases.
4. Mechanical loading is essential and promotes a favorable
microenvironment for PR
a. Only 1 and 3 are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct
d. All are correct

19. Which of the following are the main causes of cell
senescence?
1. Telomere erosion
2. Stem cell exhaustion
3. Mitochondrial dysfunction
4. Chronic inflammation
a. Only 2 and 4 are correct
b. Only 1 and 2 are correct
c. Only 1 and 3 are correct
d. All are correct

20-. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), especially TLR3 and TLR4, are highly
expressed on MSCs and their activation can significantly modulate the
immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory functions of MSCs
a. True
b. False

21. Which of the following statements are correct concerning
dendritic cells?
1. They are neuro tissue cells
2. They function as the ‘sentinels’ of the immune system.
3. Their main function is to process antigen material and present it
on the cell surface to the T cells of the immune system
4. Once activated, they migrate to the lymph nodes where they
interact with T cells and B cells to initiate and shape the adaptive
immune response
a. Only 2 and 4 are correct
b. Only 2 and 3 and 4 are correct
c. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
d. All are correct

22. Concerning the use of Extra Corporeal Shock Wave (ECSW)
therapy which of the following statements are True
1. The electrical current generated seems to help stem cell motility
2. It seems to increase mitochondria size and function
3. Production of Lubricin seems to play a pivotal role on the
beneficial effects of ECSW therapy especially on tendons
4. It can help promote angiogenesis
A. 1 and 3 are correct
B. 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
C. 2 and 3 and 4 are correct
D. All are correct
23. Which of the following statements are correct concerning
macrophages?
1. M2 macrophages are stimulated by IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, immune
complexes, or glucocorticoids
2. They are typically found in circulating blood
3. Macrophages take on various names depending on the tissue to
which they migrated:
4. M1 macrophages rely on glycolysis for ATP production
A. All are correct
B. Only 1 and 2 and 3 are correct
C. Only 1 and 2 and 4 are correct
D. Only 1 and 3 and 4 are correct

24. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is associated with
which of the following?

1. It is found only in stem cells
2. PARPs 1 and 2 are nuclear enzymes that are implicated
in many cellular processes including DNA repair
3. It is a large consumer of NAD.
4. An important cell response to DNA damage is PARP
activation
5. Activated PARP can deplete the ATP of a cell in an
attempt to repair the damaged DNA. ATP depletion in
a cell leads to lysis and cell death (necrosis).

a. Only 1 and 2 are correct
b. All are correct
c. Only 2 and 4 are correct
d. Only 2 and 3 and 4 and 5 are correct
25. Which of the following is true concerning osteoporosis?
1. It is an autoimmune mediated disease
2. May be rooted in senescent cells as a causative agent
3. It may be related to the Sirtuin Gene pathway
4. damage to mitochondria
a. Only 1 and 3 are correct
b. Only 2 and 4 are correct
c. Only 1 and 4 are correct
d. All are correct